Download 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and PDF

By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers easy rules and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with examine backed by means of ASHRAE and others, this quantity comprises 39 chapters protecting common engineering info, uncomplicated fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual homes of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were additional to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the earth.

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Example text

10 Separation in Flow in Diffuser expansion, its area is that of the upstream contraction. Ideal-fluid theory, using free streamlines, provides insight and predicts contraction coefficients for valves, orifices, and vanes (Robertson 1965). These geometric flow separations produce large losses. To expand a flow efficiently or to have an entrance with minimum losses, design the device with gradual contours, a diffuser, or a rounded entrance. Flow devices with gradual contours are subject to separation that is more difficult to predict, because it involves the dynamics of boundary-layer growth under an adverse pressure gradient rather than flow over a sharp corner.

The time it takes for an incompressible fluid in a horizontal, constant-area conduit of length L to achieve steady flow may be estimated by using the unsteady flow equation of motion with wall friction effects included. On the quasi-steady assumption, friction loss is given by Equation (30); also by continuity, V is constant along the conduit. The occurrences are characterized by the relation § 1· dp f V 2 dV ------- + ¨ ---¸ ------- + ---------- = 0 dT © U¹ ds 2D (42) where Tis the time and s is the distance in flow direction.

V is 1/2 of the maximum velocity, and the pressure drop can be written as § 8PV · dp -¸ ------ = – ¨ ----------ds © R2 ¹ (18) where L is the characteristic length scale and Q is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. In flow through pipes, tubes, and ducts, the characteristic length scale is the hydraulic diameter Dh, given by (15) The resulting parabolic velocity profile in a wide rectangular channel is commonly called Poiseuille flow. Maximum velocity occurs at the centerline (y = 0), and the average velocity V is 2/3 of the maximum velocity.

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