Download A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, by Trevor I. Williams PDF

By Trevor I. Williams

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Additional resources for A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II

Example text

Technically, the internal streamlining of steam passages, and the points of entry and exit on the valves, together with the freedom of exhaust in the smokebox, were far more important towards the attainment of higher speeds than any stream­ lined external shape. The scientific study of steam flow through the motive power circuit of a locomotive was conducted with outstanding success on the 766 LOCOMOTI VES RAI LWAYS AND R OL L I NG STOCK 767 different rail gauges and operating conditions, was the Beyer-Garratt, con­ sisting of two complete engine units, fed by a single, very large boiler carried on a central cradle suspended from the two engine units.

The ships are built on an even keel and are often dropped off the way ends into the water with a consequent large angle of heel. In many of the large modern yards ships are floated out of a building dock and are not launched in the traditional way (see below). After launching the process known as fitting out continues. , are completed. The accommodation spaces and living quarters are fitted with all services including plumbing, wiring, ventilation, etc. The modern tendency is to instal as much equipment as possible on board the ship before the launch.

The addition of these gives the total bending moment to which the ship will be subjected, and this in turn enables structures to be designed and built with an adequate margin of safety. During the period under review the shipbuilding and marine engineering industries maintained their loyalty to traditional materials, that is, mild steel, brass, and wood. As larger ships with higher speeds entered service the use of new materials was closely studied. The advantages to be obtained by reducing hull scantlings, made possible by the introduction of steels of higher tensile strength, were being examined in the 1950s, although the effects of increased deflection and vibration, notch ductibility, fatigue, weld­ ing, and fabrication all needed to be carefully assessed before economic and technical changes were made.

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