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The minimum supply voltage of the output branch is only Vr + Vsat- It can be shown that the output impedance of the pseudo-cascode current amplifiers is given by 2^0^(5^7713^03)^02- The added common-gate stage has no negative effect on the bandwidth. Pseudo-cascodes are self-biased, making them attractive for low-power applications. 5(a) to lower the supply voltage requirement while preserving the properties of the cascode current amplifiers. The minimum supply voltage of the low-voltage cascode current amplifier is given by VoD^min = Vr + Vsat- The input impedance at low frequencies is given by l/gmi-, which is the same as that of the basic current amplifier.

Node forces M n enter the cut-off mode and the current flowing out of the input node is sourced by the pMOS current mirror. It should, however, be noted that when the amphtude of the input current is small, both the nMOS and pMOS current mirrors are activated, giving rise to static power consumption. 26(b) lowers the minimum supply voltage to 2VT [52]. The main drawback of this current amplifier is that the quiescent currents are strongly influenced by both the threshold and supply voltages. 26(c) [53].

1. (a) Basic current amplifier; (b) Noise sources in basic current amplifier; (c) Input-referred noise-voltage and noise-current generators of basic current amplifier. The output impedance is given by Zo^ro2 approximately. It was shown in [27] that the output impedance of MOSFETs in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies is small. The finite output impedance of MOSFETs gives rise to a change of the output current IQ when the output voltage Vo varies. 4) is the output error current. 1(b,c). The equivalent channel noise of Mi and M2, denoted by i^j and 2^2 respectively, consists of (i) the thermal noise of the channel and (ii) the thermal noise of the gate resistance that is referred to the channel.

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